That's the conclusion I have come to; he was commander & chief after all. He took actions that would likely led to war with Japan, despite the reality that our military was not ready. Admiral Richardson, who warned about the vunerablity of PH was removed from command, for doing so. I understand others were also at fault. The Brits used radar to help win the BoB, in 1940. So, it was clear, radar was effective and a working, well staffed radar station, with the abilty to warn the air fields and harbor, should have been in place. All communications should have been synchronized, between Army & Navy. These important defensive measures, should have been implemented by Short & Kimmel.