Stalingrad 1942 Hitler promotes Paulus to Field Marshall. No German Field marshall has ever surrendered. Paulus is expected to commit suicide. Laurence Rees in "War of the Century" quotes Joachim Stempel a Leutnant in 108th Panzer Grenadier Regiment, 14th Panzer Division. Stempel's father was the General commanding 371.Infanterie-Division. Stempel discribes a meeting between his father and Paulus where the latter calls for the Germans Generals to be strong and do what they are expected to do. Die rather than be captured. Stempel the Divisional Commander does commit suicide but Paulus as we know refused on the grounds that he was a Christian. The younger Stempel is captured and is a POW until 1949. He feels resentment that Paulus encouraged his father to die but refused to kill himself. Budapest 1945. Karl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch, commander or of IX SS Mountain Corps in Budapest. The city is surrounded the Red Army offers terms for the German and Hungarian troops to surrender, which would also save many civilian casualties, this is late December 1944. It is refused, the fighting continues. The relief by IV SS Panzer Korps stops short of the city. Finally in February 1945 Pfeffer-Wildenbruch decides to break out in what I have just read as "...one of the most futile enterprises of the Second World War." On 11th February he commanded 43,900 troops. By 15th February 22,350 were POWs, some 17,000 were killed in the first six hours. 3000 were hiding in the hills but by 17th Feb they were rounded up. Only about 700 reached the IV SS Panzer Korps lines and a similar number hid in Budapest. Pfeffer-Wildenbruch could have died fighting, he could have commited suicide, many of his Officers and men did, rather than be captured by the Red Army. Pfeffer-Wildenbruch tried to escape through the drains of Buda then hid in a villa with 10 to 15 others. They were found by men of the Soviet 297th Rifle Division who pointed a 45mm anti-tank gun at the villa and called for their surrender. Rather than go down fighting like so many of his men he surrendered. Did they both enjoy their life after the war? Surely it was their duty as German officers to die with their men? Easier said than done, I suppose, commiting suicide.